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10SeedWorldShipmentsofseedforfruitsuchaswatermelonmustmeetcomplexseedhealthstandards.seeDcompaniesintodayx19sglobalenvironmentneedtobeawareox1dmanydix1dx1derenttypesox1dseedtraderegulationsaroundtheworld.Theseregulationscanbeunclearcontradictoryever-changinganddownrightx1drustratingtoseedexportersbutwithglobalharmonizationtheprocesscanbemadeeasier.Whetherdevelopingalocalbusinesspresenceinanoverseasmarketorexportingseedaroundtheworldmostcompaniesshipseedincludingcommercialx1doundationorresearchseedx1dromonecountrytoanotheratsometime.Shipmentsmustmeetcomplexseedhealthstandardsandotherrequirements.Theregulationscanbeevenmoreintricateinthecaseox1dthere-exportox1dseedwhereproductisproducedinonecountryshippedtoanotherx1dorprocessingorothervalue-additionandfnallyendsupinyetanothercountry.TheBackgroundtoSeedTradeWhensellingseedinax1doreigncountryalllocalrequirementsgoverningseedtrademustbemet.Thisincludesanyproductregistrationorseedcertifcationrequirementslocalseedlawsandintellectualpropertyrightssystems.Inmanycaseslocallawsx1dorexamplelawsregardingderegulationox1dbiotechproductsuseox1dplantpatentsandtolerancelevelsx1dorunapprovedeventsarevastlydix1dx1derentthanlawsinthesellerx19shomecountry.Allox1dtheseissuesarepartox1dacountryx19sx1doreignandtradepolicyagendaandgovernmentandindustrygroupsarex1docusedonharmonizingregulationsacrossregionsandensuringthesearescience-basedandreasonablewhilestillallowingseedtomovearoundtheworldsothebenex1ditox1dtechnologyandimprovedvarietiesreachestheworldpopulation.Seedhealthregulationsx1dorseedshipmentshavethemostimmediateimpactonmanyseedcompanies.Whileitisappropriatetousephytosanitaryregulationsasawaytoprotectalocalenvironmentx1dromtheintroductionox1dunwantedpeststheregulationsshouldbebasedonscientifcresearchandshouldbeclearlyandconsistentlycommunicated.Alltooox1dtenregulationsusedatbordersareeitherunknowntotheshipperandorarenotscience-based.Theymaybeeitherpoliticallymotivatedorbasedonassumptionsorincorrectscience.CommunicatingtheRegulationsThetwoprimaryx1dormsusedtocommunicatephytosanitaryregulationstotheimporterandexporteraswellasborderox1dx1dicialsareagovernment-to-governmentnotix1dicationsystemoraphytosanitarycertix1dicate.Anyspecialseedhealthissuesareaddressedinanadditionaldeclarationrequirementonthecertix1dicate.Hx11x1bx18x1ax19x16zx16x19grx13gulx11x1dx16x1ax19x1cfx1ax1bBx13x1dx1dx13x1btx1bx11dx13Thereisaneedforglobalharmonizationofseedhealthandseedtraderegulations.Governmentsdeterminethepestissuesox1dconcernx1dorcropspeciesx1dromeachcountryox1dorigin.IntheUnitedStatesx1dorinstanceseedhealthox1dfcialsx1dromaroundtheworldnotix1dythePlantProtectionandQuarantineprogramox1dtheAnimalandPlantHealthInspectionServiceresponsiblex1dormaintaininginx1dormationonglobalimportregulationsx1dromtheUnitedStatestothedestinationcountryintheExportCertifcationProjectEXCERPTdatabase.LikewiseAPHISworkstopreventtheintroductionox1dpotentialpestsintotheUnitedStatesandcommunicatesitsimportrequirementstox1doreigngovernments.Similarorganizationsandsystemsexistaroundtheworld.Anacceptablecontrolledpestrestrictionisonewhereallox1dthex1dollowingconditionsaremetThepestoccursintheareaofproduction.Thepestistransmittedbyorwithseedasthepathway.Thepestdoesnotexistinthedestinationcountryandwouldcauseproblemsix1dintroducedorix1dpresentisundersomex1dormox1dox1dfcialcontrolsuchaseradicationorcontainment.