b'BIOTECHNOLOGY AND NEW BREEDING TECHNIQUESPortugal, along with Spain, is one of the very few EU countries where GM corn is grown. Farmers who sow GM corn in Portugal continue to report that they believe it is a safe option. According to the 2022 GM crops report, the majority (63 per cent) of farmers using GM corn indicated the main reason for choosing genetically modified corn varieties was a better control of corn pests without the use of insecticides. Yield increase was another reason mentioned alongside grain quality. The technology continues to be chosen by both large and small farmers. It is interesting to note that Portugal is the only European country with legislation that mandates coexist-ence measures in GM corn, allowing freedom of choice for farmers.We do believe that the Portuguese government is aware of the advantages of agricultures new technologies as tools to fight climate change effects. Portugal voted in favour of the new NGTPedro Pereira Dias, Ansemes President. Source: ANSEME.legislation in December 2023. From ANSEME, we have been dis-cussing this matter in alignment with our partner Euroseeds. We have managed several meetings and workshops at the national level to discuss NGTs not only with farmers, but with academics and the public in general.ROYALTY COLLECTION ON FARM SAVED SEEDSThere is no Royalty Collection system on Farm Saved Seed (FSS) implemented in Portugal. However, there is interesting work being done at the seed sector level, with important food industries demanding the use of certified seed or the use of certain varieties. That said, some FSS is sowed (and marketed) in Portugal. In our context, where just a few players are acting along the food chain, it has been possible to reach certain understandings in order to con-trol the use of FSS. Due to this work, Portugal has achieved very strong uptake of certified seed. In the case of brewing barley, for example, we estimate that over 70 per cent of the barley produced in Portugal is sown using certified seed.On the other hand, the large geographic spread of farmers and small production areas means information on the use of FSS is not only extremely difficult to find, but the compensation amounts collected from FSS would not compensate the effort done by seedJoana Aleixo, Ansemes Secretary-General. Source: ANSEME.companies. Our belief is that most of these farmers can be included in the small farmer definition and would therefore be exempted from this payment anyway.There are several problems linked with the black market of seed that, due to our small dimension and number of players, are usually quickly corrected.ALIGNMENT WITH EU PARTNERSANSEME attends the Euroseeds Congress every year. Being part of the EU, it is important that we are aligned with our European partners. Besides, it is an opportunity to meet in person those we work with all year long. Each time we attend a congress, we come back with lots of good ideas to implement.ORIGINS OF ANSEMEIn the early 1980s, three national seed companies and competitorsJAD Sementes, Alpio Dias e Irmo and Casa Cesar Santosdecided to come together to protect the interests of the seed sector in Portugal. Founded in 1981, ANSEME currently represents almost 90 per cent of the national market.After more than 40 years, ANSEME continues to be the link between associated companies and the Official Services of the Ministry of Agriculture. It also ensures relations with European Institutions. ANSEME is member of International Seed Federation and Euroseeds, maintaining close with these two organizations inTechnical visits with associate members. Source: ANSEME.order to be aligned and updated with the international seed sector.SEEDWORLD.COM/EUROPEISEED WORLD EUROPE I 11'