b'performs state control for compliance with seed and plant variety rights protection legislation both for businesses and authorities. Customs Service ensures each importer of seeds of a protected vari-ety belong to the official list of importers authorized by that varietys breeder, helping prevent unauthorized import of such varieties.MAJOR REGULATORY CHANGESIn June 2023, despite the unprovoked Russian aggression against Ukraine, significant regulatory changes took place in the Ukrainian seed sector, including within PBR protection. As a result, some of the key definitions and notions like breeder, maintainer, etc. were updated, the term fake seeds was introduced for the first time and infringement liability was significantly increased. The appli-cation and decision-making processes were redrafted to be more simplified and less time-consuming. The process of listing and patenting varieties in Ukraine is generally clear and efficient. Adoption of digitalization by the examination authority some years ago, with application results now visible through each applicants e-Cabinet, has significantly enhanced transparency and traceability in the processes. Thanks to further legal improvements, we anticipate a gradual shift away from paper forms.Recent changes also introduced the possibility to market non-registered varieties. This requires the completion of an applica-tion under authorization from the Ministry, similar to how the EU system functions. For now, this option is limited only to vegetable varieties in Ukraine. THE REGISTRATION OF PARENT LINESChanges in terms of parent components are mostly welcomed byPBR field trials in Ukraine.SEEDWORLD.COM/EUROPEISEED WORLD EUROPE I 19'