b'Phase TwoAfter World War II: Positioning in EmergingPhase Three: Scientific Development from theInstitutions 1970s OnwardsThe importance of global institutions was realized at the veryThe sector became increasingly entwined with scientific start of FIS when the ISTA conference in Cambridge was useddevelopments in this period. Cell development and eventually to gather for the first time. Many global institutions saw the lightmolecular biology entered the realm of plant breeding, building in this second period and the sector needed to position itself.on tissue culture techniques that had been initiated in the 1960s. The most important was the establishment of the Food andOil and pharmaceutical companies, followed by agrochemical Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 1945producers, saw the opportunities of biotechnology and started to showcase seeds as an important component of its objectiveto take over significant numbers of family-based breeders and to defeat hunger. FAO became very important in (public) seedseed producers. Science and technology have continued to programs as part of the Green Revolution, which after severalshape the sector ever since. Marker-assisted breeding and now decades, led to private investments in many countries. FAOgenome editing complement the art of plant breeding. Also established the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)seed technology got a boost from chemical, technical, and in 1951, which was important for the international movement ofmore recently biological innovations. Along with these develop-seed. The Seed Schemes for varietal certification of seed qual- ments, new policies emerged. New interpretations of patent ity (by the Organization for European Economic Cooperationlaw (1980 in the U.S.), new ideas about national rights over in 1958later the Organization for Economic Co-operationgenetic resources (Convention on Biological Diversity 1993) and Development) standardized procedures that added to arules on GMOs (Cartagena Protocol, 2000), and free (World solid basis for international seed trade. The work of ASSINSELTrade Organization, 1994) and facilitated (Information and resulted in the creation of a new international organization,Communication Technology) trade contributed to changes in International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plantsthe structure of the sector. Internationally operating companies (UPOV) to provide rights for breeders, which allows for muchwere increasingly able to provide the FIS secretariat with knowl-larger investments in the seed sector. Through positioning theedge and support, but at the same time this provided questions seed sector in these international forums FIS and ASSINSEL alsoabout how to properly represent the whole seed sector in all its contributed to the professionalization of the seed sector. diversity. The role of national associations in ISF is still essential.Phase Four: The New Millennium: Supporting Associations at the Global LevelFirst of all, the traders and breeders joined forces and formed ISF in 2002 after many years of intensified cooperation between FIS and ASSINSEL. Further, globalization of association work was the key new development in this phase. The number of national associations increased, expanding ISFs membership, and regional associations emerged. The Asia Pacific Seed Association (back in 1994 at the initiative of FAO). The European Seed Association, now Euroseeds (2000). In Africa, the African Seed Trade Association (2005) in the Seed Association of the Americas (2005), and in Central Asia, the Central Asian Seed Association (2009). All this led to a wider diversity in ISF membership, and an additional role responding to questions for support by the fledgeling organizations. The geographical spread also contrib-uted to the realization of the importance of communication both with the extended membership and towards the outside world. The Centennial ISF evolved in line withand influencingthe global develop-ments; ISF reinvented itself on several occasions; roles and structure changed to give space to the changing membership; staff and Congresses expanded. The roles of all four phases have been combined in the current ISF-organisation: Trade Rules and Arbitration (Phase 1), positioning the sector in global institutions (Phase 2), responding to evolving seed sector struc-Panel discussion at the virtual congress in 2021. ture (Phase 3) and continuing global expansion through national and regional associations (Phase 4). Currently, the roles may be 14/ SEEDWORLD.COMINTERNATIONAL EDITION 2024'